PID refers to female diaspora,in general.The usual infection starts from cervix/vagina of females involves female reproductive system(Endometrium and/or fallopian tubes)and may even extend further involving different organs/systems of stomach and near by areas.PID is sometimes caused due to other inflammatory foci,like inflammation in adjacent areas.,eg appendicitis or due to hematological manifestations eg.Tuberculosis or due to some other infections.Intrauterine infections are primarily due to STIs’ or secondary due to surgical procedures.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID) is caused primarily by N.gonorrhoeae which causes gonorrhea and sometimes by Chlamydia. trachomatis which is linked to be a causative factor for Human T-cell Lymphotropic virus Type-1.There are few other organisms also but I don’t think mentioning them over here is worth as my main intention is to make this blog for general public awareness and discuss about myths and misconceptions and not for medicos for whom tons of medical material can be found everywhere.
Clinical Signs and Symptoms for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease:-
- Abdominal tenderness.
- C reactive protein levels are increased.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
- Yellowish vaginal discharge.
- Ano-rectal pain or bleeding-though rarely..
- Sexually active young females and even other sexually active females with prolonged pain abdomen where no other cause is found.
- Pelvic tenderness on manual pelvic examination.
- Cervical motion tenderness.
- Incidence of lower genital tract infections.
- Increased risk of ectopic pregnancy and hysterectomy.
- Regular and periodic screening leads to early detection even in symptom free patient. One should be faithful,avoid multiple partners and casual encounters.
- There are two goals for treatment :first is to treat the patient and secondly taking detailed history of sexual behavior from the patient and than locating each and every partner for treatment and curtailing spread of infections.Health providers in US are bound by the law to inform their respective health boards regarding gonorrhoea and clamydia diagnosed individual,law makes sure that patient turns for regular and prompt follow up and all its partners are located and treated.
- Regular and prompt Anti-biotic coverage.(Names of Antibiotics are not provided in fear of self-medication).
- Rarely Surgical intervention.